Thursday, May 21, 2020

Arguments about the critical period hypothesis Free Essay Example, 1750 words

Bley-Vroman, R. (1988). The fundamental character of foreign language learning. In W. Rutherford &M. Sharwood Smith (Eds. ), Grammar and second language teaching: A book of readings (pp. 19-30). In this article the author talks about ten different characteristics of adults who try to learn a second language. One of these characteristics is age and its correlation with the proficiency with which they learn a second language. In this section the author states that it is generally presumed that the proficiency with which an individual can learn a second language is higher during early ages of life. This article will be used in the research to provide an introduction to the argument of critical point hypothesis. Colombo, J. (1982). The critical period concept: Research, methodology, and theoretical concerns. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 260-275. This article is a discussion of the concept of critical period which is marked by the age of an individual starting from his/her birth till he/she reaches adulthood. The article even discusses various researches regarding the concept of critical period along with issues in theorizing the concept and the methodologies used to perform research regarding the topic. We will write a custom essay sample on Arguments about the critical period hypothesis or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now This article will be used in the argument to define the concept of critical period and to criticize its use in determining the proficiency that individuals attain while learning a second language. Curtiss, S. (1977). Genie: A psycholinguistic study of a modern day â€Å"wildchild†. New York: Academic Press. This research focuses on a child who lived in captivation and when she was discovered she lack the ability that the children of her age enjoyed. The research even focuses on the critical period hypothesis and the researchers were able to support the critical period hypothesis with the case of Genie. This study will be used to provide example in support of for the case of existence of a critical period which is necessary for the development of children. Flege, J. E., Frieda, A. M., & Nozawa, T. (1997). Amount of native-language (L1) use affects the pronunciation of an L2. Journal of Phonetics, 25, 169-186. The purpose of this study was to identify the impact of use of native language on an individual’s ability to learn a second language. The researchers were able to identify that second language learners are unable to develop nativelike proficiency even after being exposed to a second language for more than 34 years. The study even identified that if an individual is exposed to higher degree of native language, he/she fails in developing the accent of a foreign language.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay The Mists Of Avalon - 1035 Words

Devotion, Love, Despair and Betrayal nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The Mists of Avalon throws the throbbing pulse of femininity into the reader’s face. It expels a truth which can be felt through every sentence, paragraph and chapter. It is a grouping of heartwarming characters, horrifying plot twists and several tragedies surrounding many different themes. The Mists of Avalon becomes a legend seen through new eyes, with details, majestic language, and haunting foreshadowing that hold the reader through its more than 800 pages. It is a story of another time and place. Its the legendary saga of King Arthur and his companions at Camelot. Their battles, love, and devotion are told this time from the†¦show more content†¦It is that power which inevitably drives all those who love Viviane away from her. She must use her power to do the work of the Goddess, which is not always understood. Morgaine, who is raised by Viviane feels the power being used on her and leaves, as well as Viviane’s son, Lancelet, who is to afraid of his mother to see her. Viviane is a strong character who’s spirituality is thought provoking. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Gwenhwyfar, Arthurs Queen, is an overly pious, fearful woman who successfully sways her husband, Arthur, into betraying his allegiance to Avalon. Arthur’s incredible love for Gwenyfar is confusing at times because there is no real development of their relationship. Arthur just seems to have fallen deeply in love with a woman who’s stupidity is infuriating. However, Arthur is not the only one who is madly in love with Gwenyfar; Arthur’s best friend Lancelet is as well. Igraine see’s this in the beginning and tries to undo the arrangement of her marriage to Arthur, but it could not be stopped. Gwenyfar returns the love to Lancelet and the reader somehow manages to feel compassion for the poor woman locked in a triangle of despair. The reader grows to hate Gwenyfar as she is the ultimate rock in the bottom of Morgaine’s shoe. The Mists of Avalon depicts Gwenhwyfar as a blind cultist, rather than the wise and loving queen. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Set against Gwenyfar is Morgaine of the Fairies, Arthurs sister, love,Show MoreRelatedThe Mists Of Avalon : A Feminist Perspective1072 Words   |  5 Pages A Feminist Perspective The film The Mists of Avalon is an Arthurian work that relates the legend from the perspective of the female characters that manipulated the reigns of the power. This film, follows the journey of the priestess, Morgaine, in her fight to preserve her Celtic culture in a kingdom where those who embrace Christianity threaten to end their pagan way of life. This legend also focuses on the ladies, Viviane, Igrane, Morgause, and Guinevere as well as other significant female charactersRead MoreMist of Avalon by Marion Zimmer Bradley525 Words   |  2 PagesMist of Avalon breaks through many stereotypes but also strengthens some in some ways. One stereotype that was torn down was that women are not as strong as men. This is proved to be wrong when they have Morgaine fighting men and actually being victorious. This movie also breaks the stereotype that women can’t be in power. Most women in this movie hold very high positions. For example, Viviane is the high goddess of Avalon. Also Morgaine is her second in command. Although this movie breaksRead MoreMovie Review : The Mists Of Avalon Essay1631 Words   |  7 PagesThe Mists of Avalon Most people have heard the story of King Arthur and Camelot, most have probably heard several stories that focus on different views, different events, but for the most part the story remains the similar. Ask those same people how many Arthurian movies have you seen again many have been made and most stay along the same path, save for one, The Mists of Avalon takes us on a whole new version of the story coming from the often portrayed villainess Morgaine La Faye. With Mists of AvalonRead More The Mists of Avalon, by Marion Zimmer Bradley Essay1310 Words   |  6 PagesThe Mists of Avalon, by Marion Zimmer Bradley The Mists of Avalon, by Marion Zimmer Bradley, is not only an example of a Medieval Romance, but also tells the story of the women who stood behind King Arthur during his infamous reign in the Middle Ages. The term â€Å"Medieval Romance† does not necessarily mean that the piece using it contains any sort of romance. There are three criteria that must be meet to form a Medieval Romance. (1) The plot must divide into sharply separate episodes that often doRead MoreThe Mists of Avalon: the Women Behind King Arthur1690 Words   |  7 PagesThe Mists of Avalon: The Women Behind King Arthur Kate Wrigley period 3 The Mists of Avalon, by Marion Zimmer Bradley, is not only an example of a Medieval Romance, but also tells the story of the women who stood behind King Arthur during his infamous reign in the Middle Ages. This novel explains the reasoning and decisions that Arthur made in the womens perspective. The Mists of Avalon is a twist on the Arthurian tales as told by the four women instrumental to the story: Gwenhwyfar, hisRead More The Mists Of Avalon: The Women Behind King Arthur Essay1656 Words   |  7 Pages The Mists of Avalon: The Women Behind King Arthur nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The Mists of Avalon, by Marion Zimmer Bradley, is not only an example of a Medieval Romance, but also tells the story of the women who stood behind King Arthur during his infamous reign in the Middle Ages. This novel explains the reasoning and decisions that Arthur made in the womens perspective. The Mists of Avalon is a twist on the Arthurian tales as told by the four women instrumental to the story: GwenhwyfarRead MoreThe Robert De Boron s Prose Merlin1368 Words   |  6 Pagesacross different eras. The ideas of war, loyalty, and religion are common themes that run through the stories of Robert de Boron’s Prose Merlin, Sir Thomas Malory’s Le Mort d’Arthur, T.H. White’s The Once and Future king, as well the the The Mists of Avalon by Marion Zimmer Bradley. The legacy of the Arthurian legend captivates many audiences and has been told numerous times. In The Once and Future King by T.H White, Arthur experiences being different animals which teach him lessons about warRead MoreA Short Story : Chapter 1787 Words   |  4 Pagesher skin dimpled. She felt a slight chill in the air. â€Å"Good. You’re awake.† Mithian sat up to find Freya standing there. â€Å"Freya? Sorry I didn’t see or feel you there just now.† â€Å"I’ve been keeping watch on you from Avalon,† Freya replied. With a wave of her hand, she dissipated the mist portal behind herself. â€Å"After the delivery, we wanted you to rest and regain your strength.† â€Å"Merlin’s idea?† Mithian supposed. â€Å"All of our ideas actually. Merlin’s such a worrier. His mind’s never stopped thinkingRead MoreKing Arthur Literary Analysis3547 Words   |  15 Pagesempire to Norway, Denmark and Gaul, and defeats Roman armies in order to do this. In the end, Arthur returns to Britain to defeat his nephew Modredus (Mordred) who was left in charge of Britain but betrayed Arthur. Arthur is mortally wounded, taken to Avalon and it is implied he passed away. Arthurian legend, however, is not only about Arthur. There are many huge characters in the stories. One widely known knight is Sir Lancelot du Lac. Lancelot is a tragic figure in Arthurian Romance. He was a KnightRead MoreThe Depiction of Morgan Le Fay in Various Accounts of The Arthurian Legend2196 Words   |  9 PagesdArthur, a French version of the Arthurian legend, Mort Artu, written by an unknown 13th century author and T. H. Whites 20th century classic The Once and Future King, along with Marion Zimmer Bradleys New York Times best-selling novel The Mists Of Avalon show vastly different versions of the character of Morgan and her importance in the legend. In most versions of the legend, Morgan is Arthurs half sister, the daughter of Queen Igraine and her first husband, the Duke of Cornwall. After her

Taoism Free Essays

When first deciding to write my term paper on Taoism I thought it would be just another religion. In my research I found so many different translations that my head started spinning. There are really no known facts about the founder of Taoism, Lao Tsu, except that he was possibly a contemporary of Confucius. We will write a custom essay sample on Taoism or any similar topic only for you Order Now He was searching for a way that would avoid the constant feudal warfare and other conflicts that disrupted society during his lifetime. Religious Tolerance, 2007) Since there are many aspects to Taoism in this paper I will do my best to explain what Taoism is and also explain some of its main concepts. Taoism is described as a Chinese religious and philosophical system aimed at assisting its followers to achieve harmony within themselves and with the energy of the universe. (Von Dehsen, 1999, p. 113) As I have found in all my research Tao, translated to English, means â€Å"the way. † Individuals that follow Taoism don’t concern themselves with society and with how much wealth or power they posses.They value their own life above everything else. Taoist become one with nature and the universe. As I understand it, they live their life not concerned with what others think of them, they do not want praise for good deeds they may have done. When an individual is able to accomplish this mind set they are said to have reached Tao. Reaching the Tao and becoming one with nature requires the individual to clear their mind of all the things they have been taught. This takes a deep commitment and is very hard to do. Taoist believe in keeping their bodies healthy in order to stay in balance with the Tai Chi.Chi is a physical exercise that focuses the mind while conditioning the body. The chi isn’t the only way Taoist keep their bodies healthy, they also meditate and rely on herbal remedies. Taoist have spent thousands of years studying and experimenting with herbs and they have developed hundreds of formulas to cure or prevent illnesses. The herbal experimenting started because some Taoist believed that certain herbal formulas could guarantee immortality. I am not sure if there are any documented cases of immortality but being a believer of holistic medicine and acupuncture I can see the benefits herbs in my life today.Yin and Yang is the most universally recognizable symbol for Taoism. The symbol is a circle with one half black and the other half white. Both halves have a spot with the opposite color which represents being part of the other. Yin and Yang are two complementary, interdependent principles or phases alternating in space and time; they are emblems envoking the harmonious interplay of all pairs of opposites in the universe. (Taoism, 2007) Taoist believe yin and yang exist in all aspects of life. Some believe the white represents good and the black represents evil.If there is good there is bad, if there is wealth there is poverty and if there is woman there is man. In other words there is an opposite to everything. The universe flows in harmony without ever stopping. In chapter 42 of the Tao-Te-Ching there is a reference about yin and yang. The Tao is one, from the one come yin and yang, from these two creative energy (chi), from energy, ten thousand things, the forms of all creations, all life embodies yin and embraces yang, through their union achieving harmony. Tao-Te-Ching, Ch. 51) This brings us to our next concept, the five elements. The five elements are earth, metal, fire, wood and water. This theory is as important as the yin and yang. It is believed that these elements are part of a constantly moving cycle. An example of this cycle would be the way these elements can create or destroy each other; water puts out fire, earth absorbs water, from metal we get water when heated by fire. These elements are also used when determining medical illnesses in Chinese medicine.Each element listed above represent an organ in our body. For example, fire represents the heart and small intestine; earth represents the stomach and muscle; metal represents the lungs and large intestine; water represents the bladder and bones; and wood represents the liver and gallbladder. If the energy within an organ is not balance and because all of these elements work in a cycle it will affect other organs in your body. To give you a better example, in raditional Chinese medicine, a person may complain of trouble with the lungs and weeping or grief, and as these are classified as metal characteristics earthly herbs with a metal boosting nature may be employed and foods classified as fire would be restricted, as fire destroys or hinders metal. In this way the balance of energy in the body will be regained. (Taoist and Taoist Arts, 2007, p. 2) The concepts I have listed in this report are only a small picture of what this religion is about. In this world of conflict and unrest, a world that is nevertheless interdependent, Taoists sill search to provide natural ways of solving problems.They gain the strength to transform their own lives and thereby to fulfill their mission. They try to help individuals as well as societies to transform from a way of life based on conflict to a harmonious way of life. (Chung, 2007) In today’s world followers of Taoism would be environmentalist, naturalists and natural food advocates to name a few. There are many people in today’s world that may not even be aware that they are actually practicing Taoism or its beliefs. I have learned a lot researching Taoism and I plan to educate myself more especially the practices of the Tai Chi. References History of Taoism (2007). Retrieved December 2, 2007, from www. religioustolerance. org/taoism. htm. Christian D. Von Dehsen (1999). Philosophers and Religious Leaders, p. 113. Taoism. (2007). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved December 5, 2007, from Encyclopedia Britannica online: http://search. eb. com/eb/article-59728 Taoism and the Taoist Arts-Main Concepts (2007). Retrieved December 5, 2007, from http://www. geocities. com/Athens/Delphi/2883/main. html? 20075 Dr. Douglas K. Chung (2007). Taoism: A Portrait, p. 3. Retrieved December 2, 2007 from http://www. origin. org/ucs/sbcr/taoism. cfm How to cite Taoism, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

The Worlds Most Ethical Companies a Case of PepsiCo

Introduction Corporate concern about ethics has grown in prominence in recent times as business entities strive to incorporate moral values and principles into their operations. Companies no longer focus singly on profit maximisation and expansion of their businesses, but they also explore ways of treating the consumers, employees, and the environment in a morally praiseworthy manner (Shaw, 2011).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The World’s Most Ethical Companies: a Case of PepsiCo specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is a common practise in the contemporary organisations to find special departments that are exclusively established to cater for the ethical needs of the organisations. As a matter of fact, various independent bodies evaluate the extent to which organisations employ ethical management and practise with the view of recognising their efforts and influencing improved services. Companies are also realising the connection between their ethical practices and management, on the one hand, and the profit margins they register each financial period, on the other hand (Shaw, 2011). This paper seeks to discuss the ethics concept in business by specifically analysing PepsiCo’s practise in the same area. Pepsi’s Morally Responsible Actions Environmental management PepsiCo has an established elaborate policy on the environment, health, as well as safety management. The policy seeks to ensure that the company caters for its immediate business environment effectively. The policy comprises of eight critical points that include ownership culture, business integration, regulation compliance, as well as resource allocation (PEPSICO, n.d.). It additionally entails the aspects of performance measurement, continual improvement, together with stakeholder collaboration and annual review. In terms of ownership culture, for instance, the company’s policy identifies the need to build and sustain a proactive culture through driving environmental ownership, individuals’ health and safety, and managing the overall environmental aspect at the organisational level. The company engages, consults, as well as trains its people to influence active participation to enable these plans achieve realistic goals. Another important aspect of the environmental management programme is the issue of stakeholder collaboration. PepsiCo works in collaboration with its business partners, such as the contractors, suppliers, licensed bottlers, along with the local communities and customers to limit the health, environmental, and safety outcome related to its daily operations (PEPSICO, n.d.).Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More PepsiCo also works with a different group of stakeholders that comprises of governments, academia, other interested stakeholders , in addition to business associations and non-governmental organisations for purposes of striving to widen effective and sustainable resolutions with regard to health, environmental, and safety confrontations or challenges, all of which face the company’s operations. Ethical Consumer Treatment PepsiCo also strives to ensure that it treats its customers in morally acceptable ways without allowing inhumane practices to penetrate through its corporate human resource practises. The beverage and food company definitely deals with a large number of consumers that may prove too tricky to handle or manage effectively because it is a large multinational firm with a presence in almost all the continents in the world. The firm has established a global code of conduct that generally identifies the main objective of conducting business in the right way as a part of its corporate mechanism aimed at ensuring that customers of the firm are treated in a moral way (PEPSICO, n.d.). Employees a re expected to adhere to these codes of conduct and embrace the underlying principles as a way of ensuring that the company achieves and sustains its objectives for long (PEPSICO, n.d.). The code includes a requirement to show total respect at the workplace, an obligation to always act with integrity within the marketplace, as well as the expectation that all workers ensure ethics in the business activities that they undertake. Additionally, and more importantly, workers are required to perform their respective tasks in more responsible ways for the purpose of fulfilling the shareholders’ expectations effectively (PEPSICO, n.d.). The company revises its acceptable practises more often to incorporate changing laws that may, in one way or the other, affect on its corporate operations as a way of making the corporate code of conduct more effective. Moral Action towards Employees PepsiCo fully supports and expresses a commitment to its entire workforce. The company encourages a d iverse corporate culture where any qualified individual from whatever race, tribe, nationality, or gender can apply for job positions in the firm and be considered for employment without any discrimination.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The World’s Most Ethical Companies: a Case of PepsiCo specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company looks at this goal as an important one that encourages creativity amongst the workers, while also offering a chance for benefitting from new and unique perspectives (PEPSICO, n.d.). Pepsi realises the key role that its employees play towards ensuring that the company attains its objective towards the customers. In particular, its corporate philosophy identifies the importance of the firm maintaining mutual respect, workplace safety, and integrity. Pepsi’s inspiration of a collaborative culture focuses on recruiting, as well as retaining world-class talent by ensuring that its workers achieve employment satisfaction or what the company refers to as â€Å"Talent Sustainability† (PEPSICO, n.d.). A perfect example of actions employed by the firm in encouraging employees to speak out entails the provision of an Organisational Health Survey that is conducted every two years with a view of obtaining opinions concerning the organisation and the general workplace. Effects of the Morally Conscious Decisions on the Company’s Bottom line Customers.  Trust The morally acceptable practices and decisions of the company are likely to enhance customer trust and confidence towards the company. Because the employees are showing greater dedication in serving the customers, the latter feel comfortable to conduct business with the firm than would be the case had the workers not been considering ethical and moral practises. As this trust is developed and maintained by many potential customers, the company eventually succeeds in enlarging its profit margins because of high sales that translate into higher revenues.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Employees Motivation The moral actions directed towards the workers by the firm enhance the level of their motivation. The workers feel they are highly valued and consider themselves as owners of the firm. They are willing to increase their output because they are aware that their collective hard work will, in turn, mean that they will receive more benefits from the employer. As the employees’ motivation increases and they express their willingness to work even harder for the firm, they enhance the chances of profitability because more consumers get served satisfactorily. This increases their trust towards PepsiCo. Satisfaction PepsiCo is likely to achieve a workforce that is highly satisfied with its mandate due to its continued employee moral programmes. Workers who are fully aware that their needs, both material and emotional, are well taken care of are less likely to consider changing employers. Instead, a huge percentage of them would prefer working with the same satisfy ing employer until they attain their retirement ages. This is critical for PepsiCo because it will no longer face the need for undertaking employee recruitments after every short while. As a matter of fact, high employee turnover rates disrupt the overall planning and operation of the firm because the management has to keep training new employees who only last for a short while before quitting in search for better employers. Community Collaboration The firm is likely to receive greater support and positive collaboration from the societies because PepsiCo is expressing a willingness to support the local communities through numerous environmental management programmes. For instance, foreign governments will be willing to issue the firm with operation licences in their respective territories because they realise the benefits that the society will achieve in the long run. This kind of goodwill from the communities allows the company to expand its market and improve its revenue capabilit ies. Critical Review of PepsiCo’s Ethical Policies PepsiCo identifies six critical guiding principles that form the basis of its ethical policies and management. They include care for customers, the sale of products that attract pride, speaking the truth, and balancing the short-term plans with the long-term ones (PEPSICO, n.d.). Additionally, the firm emphasizes diversity and inclusion, while highlighting the need to respect others as a way of achieving success as a whole. The company has divided these six critical guiding principles to address all its significant areas of business. In particular, the principles address issues about customers, products, verbal communication with the shareholders, and overall future ethical plan of the organisation (PEPSICO, n.d.). It also addresses the issue of employment with regard to a diverse workforce and the employee conduct and behaviour not only towards the customers, but also towards the employees (PEPSICO, n.d.). Ethical Areas Need ing Improvement Environmental Management Given its wide array of products, PepsiCo also uses a lot of packaging materials that end up impacting negatively on the general environment (Wilburn Wilburn, 2013). The company should consider addressing this area by devising alternative packaging materials that will not pose environmental hazards to the communities at large. Customers A great portion of food products manufactured and marketed by PepsiCo are junks. These foods are responsible for the increasing dangerous health conditions, such as obesity and high blood pressure. The company should not only regard the high profits that it rakes from the sale of these foods, but it should also consider introducing healthier foods (Hall, 2007). Employees There are instances of deserving workers being omitted from planned promotions and other employee benefits because of a large workforce that is evident at PepsiCo. The company’s human resource management must ensure that it utilises ef fective computerised systems to eliminate these unfortunate incidences. Conclusion PepsiCo, which is a leading global manufacturer of assorted products like foods and beverages, has incorporated numerous ethical practices in its business strategy as a means of achieving greater acceptability. Its ethical practises benefit the local communities, employees, as well as its customers. A code of conduct has been established to direct the actions and activities of its employees. This code of conduct has been designed in a way that ensures workers serve customers in the most morally acceptable ways. On the other hand, the firm also observes an elaborate plan that ensures its workforce is handled in the most morally satisfying ways. This enhances their motivation and has the potential of influencing the attainment of more profits and revenues. However, the company ought to consider the environmental impact that its packaging causes. A large percentage of its food products are also mainly ju nks, putting the health conditions of many of its consumers at risk. References Hall, J. (2007). The ethical opportunity. Journal of Brand Management, 14(5), 365-367. PEPSICO (n.d.). Global code of conduct. Retrieved from https://www.pepsico.com/About/Global-Code-Of-Conduct Shaw, W. H. (2011). Business ethics: A textbook with cases. Boston, MA: Wadsworth. Wilburn, K., Wilburn, R. (2013). Using Global Reporting Initiative indicators for CSR programs. Journal of Global Responsibility, 4(1), 31-60 This research paper on The World’s Most Ethical Companies: a Case of PepsiCo was written and submitted by user Matilda Flores to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Virtual Reality essays

Virtual Reality essays Virtual Reality is yet another advancement in New Communication Technologies. Will it cause people, and society as a whole, to lose their grip on the real world? Or is it purely a continuation of technological advancement that allows humans to explore imaginary places? Like any other technology created by man, Virtual Reality has both negative and positive effects (Oravec, 1996). Virtual Reality (VR) is a system that enables single or multiple users to move and react in a computer simulated environment. It contains various types of devices, which allow users to sense and manipulate virtual objects the same way as they would real objects. VRs natural style of interaction allows participants the feeling of being immersed in the simulated world. The virtual worlds in which participants are immersed are created by mathematical models and computer programs (Zeltzer, 2000). Virtual Reality, when effective, creates an environment with benefits pertaining to education and safety (Osberg, 1992). VR invites user participation in problem solving, concept development, and creative expression, in an environment that is safer than the real world (Osberg, 1992). VR can also, and in some case has already, been very successful in areas such as military, training/education, surgery, entertainment, advertising, and tourism (NCT Course Content, 2001). Apart from physiological issues, VR has several psychological issues such as addiction, brainwashing, effects of interactive pornography or violence, and desensitisation or devaluing of the real world (NCT Course Content, 2001). The major concern of some critics is that Virtual Reality will use us in the future by becoming too large for us to control (Kalli, Chritine, 2000, p.1). It may be used so frequently, that humans will use the virtual world as a means of escape. People will create a perfect VR environment to live in so they ...

Monday, March 2, 2020

Scientifically Proven Ways to Start Thinking Creatively

Scientifically Proven Ways to Start Thinking Creatively There are lots of articles out there with advice on how to improve creativity. But how much of it is actually backed by scientific research? The following methods for boosting the imagination are all supported by published studies: Stop Organizing Your Workspace Apparently, keeping a messy desk serves as greater creative inspiration than keeping an organized one, according to a study published in Psychological Science. It kind of goes with the image of the mad genius who doesn’t know what color socks he’s wearing because he’s too busy inventing the internet. So, stop tidying up, sit down in your mess, and create. Paint Your Walls Blue The color blue has the ability to stimulate the brain’s creative synapses by reminding it of â€Å"the sky, the ocean and water, most people associate blue with openness, peace and tranquility† according to Juliet Zhu, a psychologist who conducted a study on color association and brain activity. This sense of peacefulness also allows people to feel supported enough to risk creative exploration. Turn Your Lights Down Low Dim lighting also helps stimulate creativity. It makes people feel â€Å"freedom, self-determination and reduced inhibition.† A study that asked students to solve creative problems found that those in the dimly lit rooms (150 lux) performed much better than those in a brightly lit room (1,500 lux). Buy low-wattage light bulbs for your room to help activate your imagination. Cultivate a Diverse Social Circle A study of Stanford Business School alumni revealed that the graduates with the highest level of creative thinking were those who networked extensively with groups of people outside their business colleagues. This exposed them to new ideas and allowed them to take more risks in thinking than if they were restricted to their normal social group. Hang Out in a Coffee Shop This has nothing to do with the intellectual tradition that coffee shops have or with the drink itself. It turns out that most coffee shops have a level of noise that supports creative thinking, as stated by The Journal of Consumer Research. Many coffee shops tend to have about 70 decibels of background noise. Extremely quiet environments like that of a library are good places to work if you need to concentrate and focus. But they don’t stimulate creativity. Travel According to the article in the Scientific American heading into the unknown can also spark the creative fires. A different setting where anything could happen and your routine hasn’t worn a groove into your brain can help create new pathways in the brain and inspire the imagination. It also creates â€Å"psychological distance† from the rest of your life, which allows you to be more open to new thoughts and solutions. Learn a New Language Along with travel comes multilingualism the ability to communicate in more than two languages. Whether you learn a new language in a foreign setting or at home, it doesn’t matter. The skill itself challenges the brain to refine its cognitive and problem-solving skills, leading to enhanced creative thinking. Meditate Adopting a meditative practice into your daily routine could help you improve creatively. A study from Cornell University observed the creative skills of a group of new meditators over the course of five months. The results were heightened mental flexibility and enhanced figurative skills. Exercise A little aerobic exercise is an incredibly useful habit to adopt. It not only ensures general overall health, but it improves mood and supplies the brain with fresh oxygen, thus enhancing your brain’s cognitive function and imaginative prowess. Next time you want to amp up your creativity, go for a short jog or bike ride, play tennis or go for a swim. Engage in the exercise of your choice to enhance your innovative abilities. Who wouldn’t want to be more creative if they could? Here’s your chance to make use any or all of these methods to improve your creative abilities and see a difference in your imaginative skills. Enjoy!

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Social constructivism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Social constructivism - Essay Example The new theoretical approach of social constructivism was introduced to the study of International Relations at an appropriate time in history. Theorists in International Relations began to gradually include the implications of a social constructivist approach to the study of the discipline, nearly two decades ago. International theory had been developed during the time of the Cold War. The persistent tension between the United States and the Soviet Union had an immense influence on the discipline of International Relations. It underscored conflict as a defining feature of the discipline, and the improbability of the emergence of a peaceful world. The view of international relations as a function involving anarchy and social disorder continued to be maintained by both realists and neoliberal institutionalists â€Å"who provided the dominant theoretical approaches to the study of international relations†. The fall of the Soviet Union at the end of the Cold War could not be expl ained by International Relations theorists who conceptualized anarchy as an essential part of the discipline and failed to predict these developments. Against this background, constructivism had a revolutionary impact on the formulation of International Relations. â€Å"Social constructivism provides a new way of looking at and conceptualizing the world that, potentially has significant consequences for all ongoing theories in international relations†. Social constructivism is based on a more dynamic, less static approach.